2020, Vol. 8 Issue 2, Part A
Lethality of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken (Crassulaceae) Leaf Methanol Extract and Fractions against Naja nigricollis and Bitis arietans Venoms
AUTHOR(S): Adebayo Gbolade, Oluwasegun Adedokun, Elizabeth Igbinomwanhia and Moshood Alli
ABSTRACT:Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken (Crassulaceae), a traditional anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-fever and anti-cancer remedy is also popular in Indian traditional herbal remedies for snake bite treatment. Studies evaluating the anti-venom activity of this plant are scarce. This study aims to evaluate the inhibitory effects of leaf methanol extract and solvent fractions of B. pinnatum against local effects induced by Bitis arietans and Naja nigricollis snake venoms. Inhibition of adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation, antioxidant, total phenol content and in vivo and in vitro effects on toxicity induced by the two venoms were evaluated. With Bitis arietans in vitro assay model, methanol extract, dichloromethane (DCM) and aqueous fractions gave concentration-dependent inhibition of platelet aggregation at 100 - 500 μg/ml which ranked as: methanol extract > aqueous fraction > DCM fraction at 500 μg/ml. The aqueous fraction with maximal inhibition of 31.5% appeared to be the most potent inhibitor of Naja nigricollis induced platelet aggregation. Concentration-dependent DPPH free radical scavenging activity which were comparatively less than the reference antioxidant, ascorbic acid was observed at tested concentrations of 20 - 100 µg/ml. There appears to be a correlation between the total phenolic contents of this plant and its radical scavenging activity with the polar aqueous fraction being the richest (31.3 mg gallic acid equivalent/g). Venom neutralization was remarkable in a dose-dependent manner at 24h and 48h (75% protection for DCM fraction, and 100% for aqueous fraction at 100 mg/kg) against Bitis arietans-LD99 envenomed mice. Order of antivenin potency is: DCM fraction > aqueous fraction = methanol extract on Naja nigricollis at 24h. Rats envenomed with LD50 of snake venoms displayed complete protection of Naja nigricollis-treated rats only with methanol extract and DCM fraction in 48h, and of Bitis arietans-envenomed animals with all tested doses of methanol extract at 24h and the aqueous fraction in 48h. In conclusion, the results indicate the potential antiophidic activity of B. pinnatum leaf particularly against local effects induced by Bitis arietans thereby justifying its folkloric usage.
Pages: 06-11 | 656 Views 21 Downloads
How to cite this article:
Adebayo Gbolade, Oluwasegun Adedokun, Elizabeth Igbinomwanhia, Moshood Alli. Lethality of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken (Crassulaceae) Leaf Methanol Extract and Fractions against Naja nigricollis and Bitis arietans Venoms. Am J Essent Oil Nat Prod 2020;8(2):06-11.